Why did the Prime Minister tender the resignation of his Cabinet to the King?
So that the old Cabinet can make place for a new Cabinet after the elections. Political parties are now negotiating about the formation of a new Cabinet on the basis of the election result. During the formation process the country has to be governed, though. That is why the King "has taken into consideration the Cabinet's offer to tender its resignation and has asked the ministers and state secretaries to keep doing all that they deem necessary in the interest of the Kingdom of the Netherlands." Until the King can install the new Cabinet, the outgoing Cabinet will keep all its rights.
Can members of the Cabinet hold the post of MP simultaneously?
Yes they can, but only as long as the Cabinet has "caretaker" status, as is the case at present. This is laid down in article 57 of the Dutch Constitution. There are no further written rules in this regard. Can MP Mark Rutte then ask a question to Prime Minister Rutte? Theoretically speaking, this is possible, but in actual practice minsters and state secretaries who simultaneously hold the post of MP will leave it to their fellow party members to scrutinize the work of the Government.
Which MPs are holding the post of member of the Cabinet simultaneously?
Four MPs of the VVD-group are also member of the Cabinet: apart from Prime Minister Rutte these are minister Hennis-Plasschaert (Defense) and state secretaries Dekker (Education) and Dijkhoff (Security and Justice).
The PvdA-group also comprises four members of the Cabinet with temporary twin functions: vice Prime Minister and minister of Social Affairs Asscher, minister Dijsselbloem (Finance), minister Ploumen (Development Cooperation and Foreign Trade) and state secretary Dijksma (Infrastructure and the Environment).
How does the House of Representatives scrutinize the work of the outgoing Cabinet?
In the same way it did before the Prime Minister tendered the Cabinet's resignation to the King. MPs who were sworn in after the elections can continue to ask questions or propose debates. It is however a good parliamentary custom that the House of Representatives does not discuss politically sensitive issues with the outgoing Cabinet, all the more so because after the elections, the balance of power in parliament has shifted. The VVD-PvdA Cabinet no longer has a majority in the House. The House of Representatives therefore draws up a list of "controversial issues".
Can an outgoing Cabinet fall?
No, for the Prime Minister has already tendered the resignation of his Cabinet to the King. However, an outgoing minister can resign of his own accord.